Identification Guide for ivory and ivory substitutes

Aug 15, 2020 | Documents


The information contained within this book was originally developed
for the wildlife law enforcement community in connection with its
mandate to enforce international endangered species trade regulations
and restrictions. Thousands of copies of previous editions of this
guidebook have been distributed in three languages throughout the
world. As with previous editions, the goal is to provide wildlife law
enforcement officers, scientists and managers with a visual and
non-destructive means of tentatively identifying the authenticity
and species origin of suspected ivory for enforcement purposes,
including a “probable cause” justification for seizure of suspected
illegal material, at ports of entry. Emphasis also remains on carved
ivory, mostly because whole teeth are easily identified. Importantly,
international regulations related to conservation and wildlife trade
generally define protections based on species names (or in some cases
subspecies names). Since ivory originates from a wide range of species
whose protection status varies, species identification is critical to
CITES enforcement efforts. Our hope is that this handbook continues
to prove useful to the international wildlife enforcement community
tasked with identifying ivory-bearing species commonly encountered
in commercial trade.

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